Notes on hyperinsulinemic artery
Diabetics are most susceptible to atherosclerosis. The damage to the artery and endothelium can be seen before development of chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetics are the perfect model for atherosclerosis. What causes the damage to arteries in initial phases of diabetes mellitus?
Hyperinsulinemia - elevated levels of insulin in the blood circulation.
What causes hyperinsulinemia? The fundamental common cause is dietary industrial sugars. Fructose and sucrose (glucose-fructose compound) in the food. Excess food, minimal exercise. Stress will exarcerbate hyperinsulinemia (cortisol). Secondary common cause is the injected insulin, as used in the treatment of Type 1 diabetes.
Why does hyperinsulinemia cause arterial insult?
Hyperinsulinemia eliminates nitric oxides, causes hypertension, resulting in loss of arterial elasticity, inflammation and damage to arterial wall (intima).
Hyperinsulinemia also results in ANG-2 expression. Inflammatory? Signals hyperplasia.
LDL? No, say Apolipoprotein B
Carbohydrate metabolites destroy proteins
Fructose metabolites: from sucrose and fructose-suryps. Primary source: soft drinks, aka soda.
Biglycans, that form the arterial wall elastic network, form a covalent bond with these metabolites.
Glycation of proteins = glucose, fructose and their metabolites form a covalent bond with proteins, disabling their function, causing systemic damage down to DNA replication.
Glycation of Apo B, causing it to remain in the arterial wall.
Arterial wall morphology
Endothelium: 1 cell layer around the lumen, inside of the artery.
Intima: thick layer of cells: 30 layers of cells, with elastic membranes and proteoglycans. Proteoglycans part of the cellular matrix.
Tunica intima: no vessels, vascular compartment, oxygen and nutrients via diffusion - or adventitial vasa vasorum growth (neovascularization).
Near the medium: accumulation of lipoprotein
Vasa vasorum: capillary veins feeding the arterial wall.
Adventitia: feeds vasa vasorum.
Arterial wall thickening
Anything mechanical or chemical insult will drive inevitable thickening of the arterial wall, which will lead to hypoxia, which will lead to neovascularization.
Friedman monograph 1969.
What does insulin do? Let me guess, hyperinsulinemia signals hyperplasia and hyperlipidemia.
Why vasa vasorum penetrate into the tunica intima?
Normally tunica intima divides but remains contained. Hypoxia causes VGF and HIF 1 growth factors (Subbotin), causes fast induction of growth. Signals vasa vasorum to grow from medium into intima, at certain focal points.
Shear stress of blood? Appears not to be sufficiently strong to suppress cell growth. Not enough flow or eddies.
Macrophages react to destroyed proteins
What is in the plaque?
Where does the LDL come from? Red blood cells?
Medicalization of Public Health Care
The MD's and officials educated by taxpayer funded universities sold your healthcare to big pharma. This means you have to take care of your health yourself: medical care - including the public health care system - only wants to sell you products, not cure you.
As wrong as it is, its backed by multi-billion income from dozens of products: this means the tax income and lobby moves the government on their side, not yours.
Decades of cholesterol parroting ignore fundamental facts: about a quarter of your brain is cholesterol, and cholesterol makes up 4% of the nerve cells, and there are no problems with cholesterol there. Every cell membrane: 30% cholesterol. These people would claim oxygen needs to be stopped, if they could make money from it. While their poster boys collect medals, the ordinary person must learn to help themselves. Especially the elderly or the diabetic.
Hyperinsulinemia is the initiating factor in arterial dysfunction, reduced nitric oxide production, and glycated Apolipoprotein B glycation the next - and not dietary or endogenous cholesterol. Hyperinsulinemia is caused by industrial sugars in the diet. Yet medical therapy focuses on modulating cholesterol: the building block of every cell and the nervous system.
Eliminating new nerve cells probably makes people into easy targets for medicalization. It is primitive science, a disgrace, a travesty and this is what our healthcare system is doing to the most vulnerable who have paid taxes all their lives, pretending to "save money" while siphoning tax money into the pockets of giant pharma corporations. - Where a diet therapist would cure the problem of hyperinsulinemia in just days!
This is both because of financial interests, and dysfunction of the scientific communities, and the outcome is corruption of the public healthcare system into a sales kiosk for pseudomedication. What a tragedy brought on by greed and hubris of the medical establishment, dominating the healthcare system.
One must not be left to the role of the victim even when the marketing forces and the lobby have multi-dozen billion euro budgets. The mechanisms related to atherosclerosis are somewhat well known.